Austriacka szkoła ekonomii wobec Marksowskiej filozofii dziejów

Norbert Slenzok


Austrian School of Economics’ Approach Towards Karl Marx’s Philosophy of History

The aim of the present paper is to elaborate the critique of Karl Marx’s philosophy of history raised by theorists of the Austrian School of Economics: Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Ludwig von Mises, Freidrich August von Hayek and Murray Rothbard. In the light of their interpretation, noticeably akin to that of Leszek Kołakowski and Andrzej Walicki, the original doctrine of Marx turns out to be an intellectual source of communist totalitarianism. According to Austrian economists, there was no need to distort Marx’s legacy in order to justify tyranny and terror; it was Marx himself who provided such a justification. The paper consists of three parts. The first of them focuses on Marx’s concepts of human nature and liberty, as well as subsequent vision of the communist utopia. The second chapter contains a hint on the Marx’s theory of alienation and commodity fetishism, which in the author’s opinion is rooted in the erroneous labor theory of value. The third part, in turn, deals with the questions of historical materialism and its fallacies. The author fully accepts the criticism of Austrian economists. However, contrary to Mises, but in accordance with Rothbard, he argues in favor of the use of class theory in the social analysis.

Keywords: Karl Marx, Austrian School of Economics, philosophy of history, communism, liberty.

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